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    幼儿阅读兴趣的培养与阅读习惯的建立

    幼儿阅读兴趣的培养与阅读习惯的建立


    来源:网络  作者:徐雯

    武汉新东方泡泡少儿英语 徐雯

      【摘要】“从小激发幼儿的阅读兴趣,培养幼儿良好的阅读习惯”,这已是现代社会幼教界普遍关注的问题。尤其对于学龄前幼儿,正处在语言发展的关键期。如果能从小养成好的阅读习惯和兴趣,那么对于他们今后学习、做人、做事、社交等都会产生巨大的影响。教育部发布的《3-6岁儿童学习与发展指南》也明确指出:要为幼儿提供良好的阅读环境和条件,激发幼儿的阅读兴趣,培养阅读习惯。可见对于幼儿阶段阅读兴趣与习惯的培养,其重要性不言而喻,本文旨在揭示幼儿早期阅读的意义与重要性,进而总结出方法论,重点结合3——6岁儿童不同时期的成长特点,分阶段说明我们应当如何培养幼儿阅读的兴趣,帮助其建立良好的阅读习惯。

      【关键词】早期阅读 阅读兴趣 阅读习惯

      当我们打开任何一本书后,我们都会对它进行一定的阅读,可以说阅读将贯穿于我们一生。如果我们能从小培养孩子形成良好的阅读习惯,那么对他将来都是受益非浅的。阅读的能力,实际上决定了一个孩子的学习是驾轻就熟,还是举步维艰。不喜欢阅读,对一个孩子来说,他丧失的绝不仅仅是人生中最主要的一种学习能力,同时丧失的,也包括他能从书中体验到的丰富情感和多种多样的人生价值观。而最最重要的是,他丧失了和自己的朋友、家人在阅读同一本书的时候,那种无可替代的分享和交流的乐趣。 3——6岁是孩子一生中不可错过的“黄金阅读期”,在这个特殊的时期,我们有义务培养孩子的阅读兴趣,帮助其建立良好的阅读习惯。

      一、幼儿早期阅读的意义与重要性

      一位著名学者曾在自传中写到:“如果说我有一点成就的话,那是我从我父亲那里接受了早期教育的结果。是父亲从小培养了我的阅读习惯,我还可以断言,早期阅读使得我进入社会比别人早了25年时间。”阅读对于一个人一生的成长和发展都至关重要,阅读量的提升会使孩子在人生观、世界观、知识面、感知力、求知欲、思考能力、表达能力的形成及处理问题的方式等方面,都表现出明显的优势。

      (一)早期阅读兴趣培养促进幼儿观察与思维能力的发展

      幼儿期正是观察力初步形成的重要时期。幼儿观察的发展,表现在观察的目的性、持久性、组织性、细致性以及概括性的不断发展。这些观察能力的培养在幼儿早期阅读兴趣培养中能予以充分的体现。例如,围绕某一问题观察画面,观察画面时按一定的次序,观察事物个别的、细微的、甚至较隐蔽的特征。在阅读兴趣培养中,幼儿需要通过对画面、角色表情的比较、分析等思维形式做出简单的判断和推理。幼儿的思维在其自己不断观察、想象力逐渐丰富、成人经常讲解指点的刺激下得到促进,逐步从以具体、直观、形象为主向幼儿晚期逻辑抽象思维形成过渡。

      (二)早期阅读兴趣培养促进幼儿独立性和自信心的发展

      独立性反映一个人在行动中的自主程度,研究表明,幼儿时独立性发展迅速。由于幼儿起初没有阅读能力,必需有人帮助,其最初的阅读行为往往来自生活实际,即幼儿的阅读一开始是一种成人与孩子的交互阅读。随着孩子年龄的增长,这种交互阅读会适当进行调整,成人的讲述成分逐渐减少,孩子的自主阅读成分增加,逐步过渡到以幼儿为主的阅读兴趣培养,幼儿的独立性由此得到发展。同时,幼儿从读不懂图片内容、不会讲故事到能够复述一个情节、一段经历,用自己的言语、语言表达方式讲述一个故事,编自己想编的故事,具有了一定阅读能力,这一转变过程使幼儿的自信心得到提高。

      (三)早期阅读兴趣培养可开阔幼儿眼界、启迪智慧、促进心理健康

      孩子都有很强的好奇心,他们不再满足于了解表面现象,而要追根问底,有强烈的求知欲和认识兴趣。阅读各种类型的图书,让幼儿获取社会、自然、人文、科学、语言、艺术等方面的基本常识、基本技能,不仅可以丰富幼儿的知识、开阔眼界、陶冶道德情操,而且可以提高幼儿的语言能力、认知能力、概括能力、阅读理解等能力。人生不可能什么事都亲历为之,阅读也是让孩子获得人的经验,多快好省地经历各种事情的一个最好办法。孩子早早进入阅读阶段,大量读书,丰富了孩子的体验,增添了生活感受。阅读永远是拓展各种经历的基本方式之一。阅读又是一种交往,通过阅读,可以使孩子与古人交往,与现代各国人交往,与未来人交往。目前,很多孩子物质供应有余、精神食粮不足,孩子的智力与个性发展受到影响,生活空虚、孤独。让孩子早早阅读,就是让孩子早早进入纯洁美妙的图书世界,使孩子的生活变得丰富多彩,乐趣无穷、充实而愉快,保证了孩子的身心健康,利于幼儿个性形成与发展。

      (四)早期阅读兴趣培养促进幼儿口头语言和书面语言的发展

      语言是人类交往或互动的一种工具,产生于人类交往的需要,按照人际交往运用的生理器官的不同,语言可以分为口头语言和书面语言。儿童的口头语言发展速度惊人,同时开始认识符号、声音与意义的关联性,尝试用自己所学的语言解释生活中的所见所闻。国外相关研究表明,幼儿在早期获得口头语言的同时,很早就开始关注周围环境中的书面语言,例如,幼儿常常拿着书嘴里叽哩咕噜,好像读书的样子;他们常常用纸和笔模仿成人涂涂写写不是字的字。而且他们获得的早期阅读经验对幼儿口语的发展起到了促进作用,特别是有利于幼儿词汇的增长,有利于幼儿对复杂语法结构的掌握,还与他们进入小学后的学业成绩正相关。早期阅读兴趣培养是幼儿接触书面语言的途径,通过阅读,幼儿接近了书面语言,增长了书面语言的知识,懂得了怎样“读”和“写”的初步规则,从而为日后的正式读写打下了良好基础。

      二、如何引导幼儿对阅读的认知与兴趣

      人们常会感到不惑:孩子很小不识字,怎能阅读呢?其实,婴幼儿阅读与学龄阶段的阅读大有区别。那么,什么是早期阅读呢?对于年幼的儿童来说,只要是与阅读活动有关的任何行为,都可以算作阅读。如用拇指和食指一页一页地翻书;会看画面,能从中发现事物的变化,将之串联起来理解故事情节,读懂图书;会用口语讲述画面内容,或听家长、老师念图书文字等等。对于幼儿早期阅读的教育,应该是终生养成性的教育,阅读是将要伴随孩子一生成长的活动,早期阅读并不在于单纯发展孩子的阅读能力,还要让孩子通过各种途径,接受各种信息,形成:看、听、读、 写一整套的养成性教育,为幼儿今后的学习打下良好的基础。因此,我们可以看出孩子其实从他们出生起,就开始接触到阅读,但对阅读的兴趣培养才是重中之重。因为这是决定他们是否会持续这一行为的内在动力。然而,我们要思考的问题则是如何去引导幼儿培养阅读的兴趣。

      关于培养兴趣, 郭沫若说过:“兴趣能使我们的注意力高度集中, 从而使人能够完善地完成自己的工作, 有了兴趣,就会去勤学苦练, 就会对一个人的成就发生作用。兴趣是可以培养出来的。”这也说明了兴趣的重要性。儿童的意志力比较薄弱, 自控能力还比较差, 因而阅读兴趣的培养就显得更加重要。

      在国外,人们非常注重孩子的早期阅读兴趣培养。据说,犹太人都很爱读书,在他们出生不久,父母就把蜂蜜洒在《圣经》上,让孩子去舔,从小让孩子认为书是甜的,并从此不断的给孩子讲上面故事,书始终放在床头。让孩子从小感觉到看书和吃饭一样重要,从小就培养孩子的阅读习惯。当然,我们不一定能做到这些,但是有一个方面是有共识的,那便是,激发幼儿的早期阅读兴趣是提高幼儿阅读认知的重要部分。

      那么,具体来说,我们有哪些好的方法可以激发孩子的早期

    |<< << < 1 2 3 > >> >>|


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