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    阅读的四种能力及其培养方法

    阅读的四种能力及其培养方法


    来源:家长学院  作者:佚名

      阅读能力主要包括认读能力、理解能力、评价欣赏能力、迁移应用能力,它们呈现一种递进的阶段性,前后关联,互为补充,形成一个完整的阅读能力纵向系列。

      1.认读能力是对书面语言的感知能力
      具体说,是指认知字形、认读字音、了解字义,初步获得课文表层意义的能力。这是阅读过程中最基本的能力,又是整个阅读过程的基础。顺利进行认读的心理特征,主要有两项,一是视读的广度、视知觉范围的大小(即视幅),精英特速读研究表明初中生视读广度是以词和短语为单位,高中生则能以句子为单位。二是表现在对一些音形义混淆、容易读错、容易写错的字以及对同义词、反义词的辨析。当然,准确认读还表现在认读时不错字,不减字、不增字、不重字、不倒字。读得正确,不仅能锻炼语言的感知能力,而且能促进对语言的理解和记忆。

      2.理解能力是阅读能力结构中最核心的因素
      阅读中的理解是对文章中词句、段落、篇章、写作方法以及所表达的思想内容的理解。整个理解过程是按照对语言形式到对内容的理解,对部分到对整体的理解;然后在这个基础上加深对语言形式和部分内容的理解这样的规律来完成的,在这个循环往复的过程中,从写词句入手,经过判断和推理,分析与综合,抽象与概括的思维活动,达到对文章中心思想的理解,才算读懂了一篇文章。
      但不同人的思维特点不同,他们理解的心理特征也就不同。以初高中学生为例,初中学生的思维特点是由形象思维向抽象思维过渡,其中具体的形象成分仍然起着重要作用。
      这一特点使他们对课文的深层意义和隐含内容常常理解肤浅;对内容复杂的课文,往往以偏概全;对没有中心句的段或不是判断句的论点、缺乏概括能力。在归纳中心思想或段落大意时,有时夹杂次要因素,有时又遗漏某些重要成分,或不大善于用自己的语言加以概括,往往会生搬硬套原文中的某些句子,作机械拼凑。高中学生的思维具有抽象概括的特点,由经验型向理论型发展。因此,他们的理解能力较之初中学生有所提高。在阅读中,能基本把握课文的主要内容,抽象出最基本的观点,并能用自己的语言加以概括。但他们在阅读中往往忽略某些深层意义或潜在内容。在揭示寓意较深的内涵或提炼某些复杂的议论文的主要观点时,仍然把握不准。
      另外,初中生思维的独立性和批判性不如高中学生,尤其在思维的广阔性和深刻性方面。因此阅读时,初中生只能就一个方面、一个层次或一般问题质疑,而高中生则可能在更多的方面和更深的层次上进行质疑;初中生主要在内容方面提出问题,高中生则能在内容和形式,乃至语言风格方面提出问题。

      3.评价欣赏能力
      指对文章美的感知、体验和评价能力,包括从课文的思想内容到表现形式、语言文字,乃至风格特点和评价和欣赏。
      高中学生在生理、心理上都接近成熟,开始初步形成某些人生价值观念,抽象思维已占主导地位,特别明显的是思维的独立性和批判性增强,阅读中选择性和稳定性有了明显发展。这些特点使他们已经具有相当的评价欣赏能力,有对阅读材料从思想内容到表现形式,乃至语言风格进行判断辨析和鉴赏。由于他们在知识和生活上的不足,致使他们
    在思维和理解上具有一定的片面性,这样在评价欣赏作品时也往往会反映出来。例如,当他们读到某些反映社会阴暗面的作品时,就以为整个社会是漆黑一团;当他们看到揭露某些干部腐化堕落的文章后,就认为“天下乌鸦一般黑”。这就要求语文教师必须在培养学生评价欣赏能力方面采取多种方式加以指导。

      4.迁移应用能力是最高层次的阅读能力
      迁移应用能力是指经过大量阅读后,将储存起来的知识在新的阅读过程中加以灵活使用,以获得新知识的能力。
      迁移应用能力的最大特点是由此及彼、举一反三、获得新知识。一般说来,高三学生的知识水平和生活实践逐渐增加,抽象思维也达到较高的水平,创造性想象力逐渐丰富起来。这种较高的思维和想象的结合,造成了一种积极的心理势态,表现在阅读上,就是掌握了精读、速读、浏览的方法;摘录、笔记、摘要、制作卡片、查阅工具书和有关资料等方法,阅读更具有独立性和研究性,阅读技能达到了相当水平。
      阅读过程中的四种能力虽然是四个相对独立的阶段,但仍是交错的,呈螺旋并进的态势。认读中有理解,理解中有评价,欣赏又是理解的深化,迁移则是在深刻理解基础上的发展,这些都取决于人们思维发展的阶段性。
     


    ·上一篇文章:如何提高记叙文阅读水平
    ·下一篇文章:四种方法培养孩子的阅读兴趣


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