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    对快乐教育的反思:真正的教育是让孩子幸福,而不是简单的快乐

    对快乐教育的反思:真正的教育是让孩子幸福,而不是简单的快乐


    来源:学习力教育中心  作者:余建祥

      最近经常有家长跟我探讨快乐教育的问题,“快乐教育”是近代西方哲学家、社会学家、教育家斯宾塞提出的,无疑在十九世纪,这个提法和倡议在当时是有积极意义的。在美国,他的思想曾引起美国的教育革命,统治美国教育达30年之久。但是斯宾塞的快乐教育跟很多家长理解的“快乐教育”并不一样,更多强调兴趣和遵循心理规律。

      在今天,如果更科学地来理解,我个人认为用“幸福教育”来代替“快乐教育”会更恰当。我们来看看“幸福”的定义,在百度百科上对幸福是这样定义的:“幸福,是指一个人得到满足而产生的喜悦,并希望一直保持现状的心理情绪。幸福说到底就是好的满足。幸福感=R*满足感(R:幸福商)。幸福划分为四个维度,满足、快乐、投入、意义。每个维度的幸福都有,但是将浅层次的快乐转化为深远的满足感和持久的幸福感是一件益处更大的事情。”由此可见,幸福是更深层次的满足和快乐,更强调满足和意义,而快乐则是浅层次的。

      举个简单的例子来说,当你和孩子一起爬上一座山顶,过程中可能会气喘、疲劳,但当登上山顶的那一刻,那种快乐、满足和骄傲是难以言述的,那种征服的意义对孩子来说是非常重要的。所以幸福的获取需要通过努力来获得,而快乐很容易就可以达到。

      如果从生物学来说,幸福是通过大脑奖赏机制实现的。科学家发现,人脑中会分泌多种能让人感到快乐、安全和成就感的物质,这些物质统称为“快乐素”(Happiness Hormone),其中的杰出代表有“四大金刚”:产生快感的“多巴胺”,带来激情的“去甲肾上腺素”,负责取乐和镇痛的“内啡肽”,还有协助我们战胜困难的“催产素”。通常情况下,快乐素的释放水平很低,维持我们心情平静。只有当我们完成了预设目标,作为奖励,大脑才会增加快乐素的分泌,让人感受到满足和成功的喜悦。而正是这种机制,激励着人类前进和进步。

      当孩子吃了一顿妈妈做的好吃的食物,孩子会感到快乐;而如果孩子跟着妈妈学会并且自己做出了好吃的食物,那么他得到是发自内心深处的满足和快乐,这就是幸福。浅层的快乐很容易就可以获得,而幸福需要通过付出才能得到。而教育正是要培养孩子获取幸福的能力,而不是简单地让孩子快乐。

      所以,我一直认为,真正的教育是会让孩子感觉到幸福的,会良好地培养起孩子获取幸福的能力,而不是简单地让孩子快乐。当培养好孩子的学习能力,孩子就会在学习上举重若轻,在学习过程中体会到收获的幸福,在考试中感受成功带来的快乐。相反,孩子在考试中不断受到挫折和老师同学的嘲笑,哪怕平时玩得很开心,又哪来的幸福可言。当孩子在公交车上给老人让座,老人感激的目光和道谢,也会让孩子感觉自己是个对社会有贡献的人,并为之感到满足和骄傲。而另一个孩子看到公交车上有人因刹车而摔倒哈哈大笑,这种浅层的快乐是一逝而过的,还会因旁人责难的目光而羞愧。

      让孩子获得获取幸福的能力,这才应该是教育真正的真谛!而幸福比浅层的快乐,对孩子而言要重要和有意义得多。(余建祥)


    ·上一篇文章:人工智能时代来临,学习力教育正在颠覆当下的教育!
    ·下一篇文章:用发展的眼光看教育,教育永远美好!


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