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    寒门再难出贵子?一份对北大的调查得出的答案

    寒门再难出贵子?一份对北大的调查得出的答案


    来源:中国现代家庭教育网  作者:霍思伊

    (原标题:中国大学生家庭出身调查研究:寒门难出贵子?)

    中国大学生家庭出身调查研究:寒门难出贵子?

    2016年,李中清(右)与其父李政道合影于李政道90岁生日当天。图/受访者提供

      李中清:

      破译中国精英教育的生源密码

      本刊记者/霍思伊

      本文首发于总第837期《中国新闻周刊》

      李中清缓慢地走向讲台。他有着典型的“美式身材”和一张中国人的面孔。笑起来眼睛眯成一条缝,脸颊两侧微微鼓起,那种与年龄无关的少年感,和他的父亲李政道一模一样。

      台下的很多同学并不知道他和李政道的关系。

    中国人民大学的主持人介绍他:香港科技大学人文与社会科学学院院长,历任加州理工大学教授、密歇根大学教授、北京大学长江学者。 “他是将社会科学的定量方法应用于历史数据分析的先行者。”

      作为加州学派的代表史学家之一,无论从履历还是研究成果上看,李中清都已经凭自己的努力占有一席之地,无须靠父亲扬名。

      从小他就想要摆脱父亲的影响,因此选择与物理截然不同的历史作为发展方向。他研读繁体典籍,苦练中文。他咬字清晰,表达流畅,虽然带着“美国腔”。“中国正在从考试国家变成考试社会。”他说。

      这是2017年12月的北京。李中清获邀作一场题为“民国时期高等教育与女性的教育和职业发展”的演讲。

    “一切历史都是当代史”。从民国时期的各高校单独考试,多校联考,到1952年全国统一考试制度的建立,李中清认为,高考改变了中国

      父亲的熏陶

      从小,李中清就常听父亲说,是高考改变了他的命运。

      1943年,17岁的李政道考入浙江大学化工系。此前由于战乱,他数次辍学,辗转多地,始终没有获得过任何正式的小学、中学文凭。

      当时,中国高校普遍采取灵活多元的招生方式,单独招生与联合考试并存,只要年龄和成绩达标,不需初高中文凭,也可以直接录取。

      考入化工系后不久,在浙大物理系教授束星北和王淦昌的引导下,李政道的兴趣逐渐转向物理,并在大二转入国立西南联大就读。后在吴大猷教授的推荐下,他大学未毕业便赴美国芝加哥大学攻读硕士。由于表现优异,芝加哥大学教务长亲自给校长写信说明情况,李政道被学校破例录取,成为世界级物理大师恩里科·费米(Enrica Fermi)的研究生。

      讲到这里,李中清停顿了一下,他睁大眼睛,自己笑开了。“所以,我爸爸高中文凭没有,大学文凭也没有。博士是他唯一的文凭。”

      博士毕业七年后,31岁的李政道因与杨振宁合作提出“弱相互作用中宇称不守恒理论”,共同获得1957年的诺贝尔物理学奖。

      李中清常听父亲说,他的事业是从高考开始的,没有高考制度,就不会有后来的李政道。

      李中清15岁读高中时,对父亲说,自己以后不要学理科,不从事自然科学和应用科学,要研究人文社会科学

      1970年,他以SAT满分的成绩进入耶鲁大学历史学系,师从考古学家张光直,开始系统学习中国古代史。1974年至1983年,他在芝加哥大学历史学系继续攻读硕博,导师是史学泰斗何炳棣先生。

      何炳棣的研究领域是明、清中国的人口和社会结构问题,致力于探索明、清时期中国社会组成及阶层流动。

      何在《中华帝国晋升的阶梯》一书中指出,明清中举者中大约有40%出身于前三代无功名的寒门之家,中国教育与政治精英的来源相当多样化,阶层流动性较强。

      但1865年以后,清朝进士获得者一直为官宦子弟垄断,科举制之下的社会流动性降到了最低。

      有学者指出,如果考虑家族与姻亲关系,明清以来科举的真正获益者,可能只有约三百个大家族,且高度集中在江南、直隶等少数地区。

      何炳棣对科举制与明清社会流动的研究,给了李中清很大的启发。他从科举想到了高考。

      在帮助父亲处理大量的学生申请材料时,李中清对高考有了更为直观的认知。

      从1979年开始,李政道牵头创立了中美联合培养物理类研究生项目(简称CUSPEA),通过与美国高校合作、自主命题的方式,用CUSPEA考试取代了当时在中国还没有开展的TOEFL、GRE等成绩认证考试。

      每年,李中清都要整理一百多份申请材料。让他感到惊奇的是,这些优秀学生的来源非常多样化,既有北京大学、清华大学等老牌名校,也有云南大学、兰州大学等偏远地区的大学。这与美国的精英学生集中在哈佛、耶鲁、普林斯顿等常青藤联盟的情况非常不同。

      然而,从上世纪80年代中期开始,生源逐渐集中化,从原来的“遍地开花”,变成北大、清华、中科大等少数几所大学。

      李中清很快意识到这个转变,他对变化背后的逻辑愈发好奇。

      1973年,李中清第一次来到中国,作为被周恩来特批的三位华裔后代之一,在复旦大学体验中国的“革命”。

      和任何一个成长于60年代末、70年代初的美国青年一样,李中清反对越战,因参加耶鲁学生运动被抓,厌烦冷血的资本主义社会,对当时正发生在中国的“革命”有着天然的好感。

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