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    儿童美育应兼顾经典艺术与当代艺术

    儿童美育应兼顾经典艺术与当代艺术


    来源:中国艺术传播网  作者:朱青生

      来源:中国美术报  作者:朱青生

      原标题:审美素养与创造力——儿童美育应该兼顾经典艺术和当代艺术

      儿童艺术教育应该兼顾经典艺术和当代艺术,还应同时关注中国传统文化和世界现代文明。其中涉及两个问题:首先是中国艺术和西方艺术的差异问题。如何认识以写实主义方法和现实主义观念为核心的西方经典艺术;如何重新认识中国传统艺术,并将其作为人类艺术史上的普遍价值之一来看待。其次是如何正确对待和认识经典艺术和当代艺术的问题。

      胡安·米罗?哈里昆的狂欢(局部)?布面油画?1925 年

      我认为,艺术一直存在传统艺术和当代艺术的区别。当代艺术,目前在我国很容易被归纳为西方艺术,其实当代艺术对西方来说也有两端。卢浮宫中所陈列的艺术作品被视为西方的“传统艺术”,也是我国写实绘画和学院教学内容的主要来源,但是当下西方没有一个艺术家会沿用达·芬奇或者希腊艺术的方法创作作品,这是世界艺术发展进程中的特殊现象。当代艺术是第三种艺术,它既不属于西方,也不属于中国,它属于正在变动的时代——当代。无论这个时代给人类带来多少忧虑,或者给传统造成何种异化,它的存在是毋庸置疑的。中国曾经在上世纪二三十年代经历过对当代艺术的探索阶段(2000年之前通称“现代艺术”),但是之后并没有介入当代艺术的发展历程。近三十年来,中国艺术取得了有目共睹的成就,形成了三者并立的局面:艺术创作的自由既带来了西方绘画和学院艺术的勃兴,也带来了中国传统书画艺术的繁荣和发展,同时当代艺术作为新兴艺术的发展得到了西方世界的关注。

      当我们给下一代传授艺术史知识的时候,应该给孩子教授怎样的内容呢?我认为应兼顾中国传统和世界文明,当代艺术和经典艺术教育并重。兼顾经典艺术与当代艺术的儿童美育,不应仅注重对教学内容和艺术欣赏对象的选择,还要注重对儿童审美素养和创造能力的培养。考虑到经典艺术与当代艺术在对儿童的能力和素质培养方面的侧重点不同,培养目标也不一样,与之相应的儿童艺术教育在内容配置上就要有所区别。

      朱青生为小学生讲解当代艺术作品

      经典艺术,顾名思义是指在历史上沉淀下来,具有明确的规范和确定的标准,是形成经典意义的艺术杰作。这些经典既有对内容的规定,又有形式上的规矩。因此,学习和欣赏经典艺术作品的过程,就是传承人类文明的过程,其重要性无须赘述。

      但是我们也要看到,在人类文明发展的过程中,“经典”总是指向过去的成就,而“未来”则是在当下不断地变革和创造中生成的。儿童美育要着重于对感受力、想象力和创造力的培养,这种培养并不是背诵了多少经典就能达成的,而是要通过对“创造”本身的感觉、想象、实验、探索的建构训练才能实现。这种训练的“精神运动场”,就是当代艺术。

      当代艺术强调每一件艺术作品都必须是原创的,并不要求创作者掌握某种规范或技巧,而是将超越自我认识的局限和突破时代陈见(俗见)作为目标,不断试探突破和创新的可能性,这就是当代艺术又叫做“实验艺术”的原因。目前,全国美展设有实验艺术展区,中国美术家协会下设实验艺术委员会,教育部艺术学专业目录中也有实验艺术学科专业,儿童美育也应该补充这一方面的内容。

      针对儿童开展有关当代艺术的教学实践,除了参观美术馆和当代艺术家工作室等,还应该尝试推行四个创作法则,用四种方法鼓励儿童参与当代艺术创作。

      1。“极端法则”。将每一种创作要素在趋向极致的边界上再推进一点。比如涂一种鲜红颜色,为了使颜色更加鲜亮在画后面加上灯光使之更亮等,将艺术实验极端化。

      2。“对立法则”。鼓励孩子进行差异化的创作,从而激发个性。在小组创作时,当有一个孩子画出了某种形象,其他的小朋友就要想办法做出一个与之不同的东西形成对比,这样就能够将创造力激发出来。

      3。“比照法则”。超越时间和空间的局限,寻找文化、艺术遗产中的关联性,创造新的作品形态,就像生物杂交实验一样。当然生物杂交在科学上受自然规律的限制,而在艺术上,这种比照、杂交和融合是无限制的,通过自由想象探索创作的各种可能性。

      4。“自否原则”。强调作品不应一味重复,引导孩子进行创新。艺术实验的创作过程就是否定自我、再思考、再批判的过程,进而实现自我突破。

      上述四种法则是当代艺术最基本的创作方法,区别于经典艺术所强调的规则和传承,通过这样的方式与经典艺术教育相结合,儿童美育将增加一个激励其发展的推动力。在坚持进行艺术史分阶教育的基础上,通过赏析经典艺术提高儿童审美修养的同时,将课堂教育中普遍缺乏的“当代艺术”内容也作为美育的工作重点,既是一种弥补缺失的规划方案,也是一种责任。

      (图片来源于中国美术报及网络)


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